Color ( Reading notes)

From “The Extended First Field: Color” (Herbert Zettl, from Applied Media Aesthetics)

Hue describes the color itself.  Red, blue, green, and yellow are color hues.

Saturation describes the color richness. (highly saturated; less saturated)

Saturation is sometimes called chroma (Greek for “color”)

When the strip is photographed in black-and-white, all degrees of saturation show the same gray. The desaturated hue does not get lighter or darker.

Brightness, or value, indicates how light or dark a color appears in a black-and-white photograph. The brightness of a color depends on how much light it re# ects. Black-and-whitethat vary in brightness only. Brightness is called lightness when it refers to how bright we perceive an object to be.

The additive (light) primaries are red, green, and blue (RGB).

The subtractive (paint) primaries are cyan, magenta, and yellow (CMY).

Color Harmony


Tinge 淡色

Color Temperature: Although we speak of “white light,” no light we ordinarily see is pure white. Some so-called white light has a reddish tinge; other white light is bluish. Even the “white” sunlight changes color.At midday sunlight has an extremely bluish tinge; during sunrise or sunset, it is much more reddish. 4 is relative reddishness or bluishness of white light is measured by color temperature in Kelvin degrees (usually expressed as K in lighting lingo).

 Color energy is the relative aesthetic impact a color has on us. A color’s energy depends on its hue, saturation, and brightness attributes; the size of the color area; and the relative contrast between foreground and background colors.

From The Interaction of Color (Joseph Albers), Selections

actual facts. It means something remaining what it is, something probably not undergoing changes. But when we see opaque color as transparent or perceive opacity as translucence, then the optical reception in our eye has changed in our mind to something different. The same is true when we see 3 colors as 4 or as 2, or 4 colors as 3, when we see flat, even colors as intersecting colors and their fluting effect, or when we see distinct I-contour boundaries doubled or vibrating or just vanishing.

It has been seen that color differences are caused by 2 factors: by hue and by light, and in most cases by both at the same time.

Subtract: Useful Third, when placed on a red ground equal to one of the 3 samples, only 2 of the reds will “show,” and the lost one is absorbed-subtracted. From this, it follows that any diversion among colors in hue as well as in light-dark relationship can be reduced if not obliterated visually on grounds of equal qualities.

From: Graphic Design School (Dabner, Stewart, and Zempol): Fundamentals of Color

 Tone (or value) is the relative lightness or darkness of a color. A color with added white is called a tint; a color with added black is called a shade.

Primary color: red, yellow, blue

Secondary color: a mix of any two primaries: orange, green or violet

Associations: Connections between colors and emotions, culture, experience and memory.

Connotations: A color’s broader associations. For example: green-jealousy, naively, illness, environment, nature.

Denotations: What the color literally means, or is; for example: a red rose is a green stem with red petals.

Hot palette; Chilling palette (The juxtaposition of the coldest and warmest of colors); Sweet palette (natural hues and soft contrasts)


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